CDMA and OFDM – The Convergence of Wireless Mobile Services
Until the 20th century, there was a fairly straightforward division between the cellular and telecommunication industries, which supplied simple cellphone, tv, radio, laptops, and Internet offerings. Most cell operators used second generation (2G) virtual wireless technology to permit voice communications and limited information services, even as most wireline, cable, and satellite tv for pc systems furnished the bulk of the opposite telecommunication offerings. Despite its preliminary boundaries, cellular communications have been a splendid achievement, surpassing fixed-line connections worldwide in 2001, simply 12 years after its market advent. This has been specifically obtrusive in growing markets. Because of its lower deployment expenses and extra community flexibility, wireless technologies have ended up the number one method of communique for hundreds of thousands of human beings, spurring the monetary and social improvement of those markets.
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there was a dramatic shift in telecommunications services’ marketplace dynamics. With the introduction of the third era (3G) IMT-2000 technologies based totally on CDMA, wi-fi operators have been able to offer first-rate voice services and broadband Internet access and multimedia offerings, blurring the boundaries between the telecom industries. Service vendors and regulators across both developed and growing markets were brief to adopt and promote the technologies. As a result, an excellent momentum has been built in the back of the deployment and adoption of the 3G CDMA offerings. In the 7 years since its creation in 2000, over 460 operators have released CDMA2000 and WCDMA structures surpassing 1/2 one billion users via September 2007. The adoption of 3G mobile broadband technology, such as CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and HSPA, has improved, accomplishing 270 business systems serving more than a hundred million customers in 165 countries.
Yet once more, the wi-fi industry stands at the crossroads of choosing abilities and services to take it properly into the future. These new dimensions encompass: the proliferation of voice, video, television, broadband Internet and cost-brought statistics offerings; integration among wireless and stuck networks to permit the seamless delivery of these offerings over a couple of networks; stepped forward user revel in and economics, and; convergence of industries together with telecommunications, records, and broadcasting.
The subsequent-technology of IMT systems is based totally on CDMA and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) technologies, together with OFDM-primarily based broadcast technologies inclusive of DVB-H, FLO, and ISDB-T, could be key enablers of this transition. In unique, CDMA2000 EV-DO Revision B (Rev. B), HSPA+, Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), Long Term Evolution (LTE), and Mobile WiMAX (802.16m) can offer the overall performance characteristics as a way to support multi-megabit-per-2nd records delivery to users, carrier-grade VoIP and different actual-time and broadband extensive packages (Figure 1).
With tremendous marketplace momentum and significant economies of scale and scope, 3G CDMA technology will remain the primary platform for cellular communications, along with next-generation broadband services, well past the yr 2020. Nevertheless, a few incumbent operators and new provider companies are thinking about the purchase of additional spectrum and deployment OFDM-based structures.
Regardless of the operator’s approach and present era roadmap, it’s far turning into glaring that a “one network fits all” method will not suffice in destiny aggressive markets. Selecting change technology might be very structured upon an operator’s particular set of instances, inclusive of marketplace opportunities, assigned licenses, available spectrum, preceding era picks, vendor relationships, and propensity for the chance. In different phrases, carrier carriers will pick the path and technologies that satisfactorily meet their market and economic necessities.
The CDMA era roadmap has furnished operators with era-main overall performance skills and a time-to-marketplace advantage from its inception. Thanks to CDMA’s ahead-and-backward, well-suited era improvements in the 1.25 MHz CDMA radio channel, CDMA operators have benefited from the favorable economics of an evolutionary “in-band” answer. As a result, they had been capable of installing new technologies and value-delivered services in the course of their whole community much faster than their competitors.
The CDMA2000’s own family of technology is firmly located to stay an essential thing of the convergence revolution. With the economic availability of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A(Rev. A) in 2006 and multi-service EV-DO, or EV-DO Revision B (Rev. B) in 2008 to provide extra potential via a simple software improvement, CDMA2000 operators may be capable of providing multi-megabit-in keeping with-2d common records fees to individual users while leveraging the significant economies of scale and scope that the CDMA2000 industry gives.
OFDM-based answers could be built-out over the years as the call for excessive-capability broadband offerings grows, and a broader bandwidth spectrum becomes available. Meanwhile, 3G CDMA answers will coexist with this higher-bandwidth OFDM-based totally answers until OFDM-based total technology is fully capable of handing over an equal or better cost proposition to the stop person, together with ubiquitous coverage, compelling broadband services, provider-grade VoIP replacing circuit-switched voice services, low-priced devices, worldwide roaming, and a progressed profitability for operators.
It is anticipated that the coexistence of CDMA and OFDM-primarily based answers will persist well past 2020. Until then, 3G CDMA-based solutions will stay the center of business for hundreds of operators. Once the adoption standards are met, the more than three-four billion wireless subscribers inside the world will begin migrating to the more modern era of wi-fi technology. With an ever-growing subscriber base, the migration system is lengthening.
The “one era suits all” technique will now not suffice within the destiny competitive telecommunications marketplace. Instead, operators will leverage the maximum suitable technology for a particular application or service. Bluetooth will assist the private region community, NFC will permit mobile commerce, Wi-Fi will fulfill neighborhood location network connectivity, GPS will enable presence and region-primarily based offerings, 2G and 3G cellular technologies will provide ubiquitous voice and broadband records offerings, and OFDM-based technology will offer large quantities of bandwidth for backhaul, broadcast and broadband applications in “hot-zones.”
For most operators, 3G CDMA-based technology can be extra than sufficient for their voice and broadband records requirements for at least a decade. For the one’s operators that require better quantities of bandwidth, particularly in excessive-visitors regions, OFDM-based total technology provides positive economic benefits. It could kill them to supplement their offerings, features, and insurance. In maximum instances but, 3G CDMA will remain the leading and most within your budget platform to transport cellular broadband services.
OFDM-based total solutions may be built-out over the years as the demand for broadband offerings grows and the spectrum will become available. Mass adoption of these huge-bandwidth OFDM-primarily based solutions will take years, as coverage is extended and economies of scale are built. Meanwhile, CDMA2000 will remain the center of commercial enterprise for proper loads of operators over a decade and play an essential function in the future wireless industry.